Citations are classified by a deep learning model that is trained to identify three categories of citation statements: those that provide disputing or supporting evidence, and others, which mention the cited study without providing evidence for its validity.
Citations are classified by rhetorical function, not simply positive or negative sentiment.
Citations are not simply classified as supporting or disputing by positive or negative keywords.
Supporting and Disputing citations do not necessarily indicate that the exact set of experiments were performed. For example, if a paper finds that drug X causes phenomenon Y in mice and a subsequent paper finds that drug X causes phenomenon Y in yeast but both come to this conclusion with different experiments—this would be classified as a supporting citation. even though identical experiments were not performed.

A few examples:

Supporting citation statement

Here, the statement In agreement with previous work .... indicates support, while ... the trisomic clones showed similar aberrations, albeit to a lesser degree (Suppplemental Figure S2B) ... provides evidence for this supporting statement. Hence, this citation is classified as supporting because the authors of the citing study provide primary evidence supporting (Nicholson et al 2015), they do no not merely mention evidence provided by others.

Disputing citation statement

Here, the statement These findings do not replicate previous studies... indicates a dispute, while showing either increased (e.g., Phan et al. 2006) ...magnitude of dorsal anterior specifies the evidence that the citing study disputes. Hence, this citation statement is classified as disputing because the authors provide disputing evidence, not repeat someone else's conclusion.

Mentioning citation statements

This citation statement refers to Phan et al. 2006 without providing evidence that supports or disputes the cited study.

Here, the statement Consistent with these findings.... sounds supportive, but, in fact, cites two previous studies: [87] and [27] without providing evidence for either. Such cites can be valuable, as they establish connections between observations made by others, but they do not provide primary evidence to support or dispute the cited studies. Hence, this citation is classified as mentioning.

The following two citation statements agree with conclusions made previously by others, but do not provide primary evidence to either support or dispute them. Thus, these statements are classified as mentioning.

If you do find citation statements that are not classified correctly, please flag them and suggest your classification. Your suggestion will be reviewed independently by two experts and, if both agree, will be accepted and labeled as "Expert classified."
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